Bu madde, Vikigezgin biçem el kitabına uygun değildir.
Avrupa, Asya'dan Atlantik'e ve Afrika kıtasından Kuzey kutbuna kadar 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 kare mil) genişliğinde bir alanı kapsar. Avrupa ülkelerini yılda 480 milyondan fazla kişi ziyaret eder ve bu ziyaretler dünya turizminin yarısından biraz daha fazla turizm pazar payı demektir. Dünya genelinde en çok ziyaret edilen 10 ülke arasında, 7 Avrupa ülkesi bulunmaktadır. Avrupa'da iyi derecede korunmuş kültürel mirasları, etkileyici altyapıyı, henüz birkaç saat geçmeden birbirinden farklı kültürleri görebilirsiniz. Üstelik tüm bunları açık sınırlardan faydalanarak daha kolay gerçekleştirirsiniz. Ancak bu durum her defasında farklı sözcük grupları öğrenmenizi gerektirir. Bu kara parçası yüzölçümü ile dünyanın ikinci en küçük kıtası olmasına rağmen, ülkelerdeki yaşam kültürleri arasında derin farklılıklar bulunmaktadır
Avrupa'nın her bir bölgesi ayrı ayrı kendi kimliği, dil ve kültürüne sahip ülkelerden oluşur. Aşağıda ülkeler bölgelerine göre kabaca sınıflandırılmıştır:
|Balkanlar (Arnavutluk, Bosna-Hersek, Bulgaristan, Hırvatistan, Kosova, Kuzey Makedonya, Moldova, Karadağ, Romanya, Sırbistan, Transdinyester)|
Balkanlar harika doğası, büyüleyici kültürü, etkileyici manastırları, çalkantılarla dolu tarihi, kaleleri, izlemesi ayrı bir keyif olan göllerin bolca serpiştirildiği büyük dağ ve güzel ormanlar ile iyi bir seyahat tercihidir.
|Baltık devletleri (Estonya, Letonya, Litvanya)|
Üç geniş kıyı şeridi bulunan bölgenin muhteşem plajları ve büyüleyici ülkeleri bulunur. Ortaçağdan kalma eski kasabalar en güzel doğal manzaraları oluşturur. Estonya ve Finlandiya'nın dilsel ve kültürel bağları bulunmaktadır.
|Benelüks (Belçika, Lüksemburg, Hollanda)|
Bu ülkelerin gezginlere sunabileceği pek çok olanak bulunmaktadır. Hollanda'nın takunya, peynir, lale ve yel değirmenleri ressamlarda daha fazla liberal tutum oluşturduğu bilinir. Belçika Ardenleri'nin inişli çıkışlı tepeleri de gezilmeye değerdir. Lüksemburg güzel ve tarihi kentleri ile çok dilli bir ülkedir.
|Britanya ve İrlanda (Guernsey, İrlanda, Man Adası, Jersey, Birleşik Krallık)|
İngiltere gezginler üzerinde büyüleyici geçmişi ve dinamik yapısı ile daha büyük ufuklar açar. Burada modern kültür ve göçmen kültürleri iç içe geçmiştir. İrlanda'nın karakteristik gelenek ve görenekleri ise görülmeye değer farklılıktadır.
|Kafkasya (Ermenistan, Azerbaycan, Gürcistan)|
Kafkasya Karadeniz ve Hazar Denizi'nden itibaren Avrupa ve Asya arasında uzanan bir dağ silsilesi üzerine kuruludur. Kafkasya gezginler için yoğun, sıcak, samimi ve güvenli bir gezi bölgesidir. İnanılmaz manzaralar, antik kiliseler, katedraller ve manastırların büyüsü sizi burada karşılar.
|Orta Avrupa (Avusturya, Çek Cumhuriyeti, Almanya, Macaristan, Lihtenştayn, Polonya, Slovakya, Slovenya, İsviçre)|
Doğu ve batıya yayılan Orta Avrupa Germen kültürü ve Slav kültürü bu bölgede birleşir. Kudretli Alp'lerde sayısız tarihi kasaba, masal gibi kaleler, bira, ormanlar ve dağlar, bozulmamış tarım alanlarına ev sahipliği yaparlar.
|Fransa ve Monako |
Fransa ve Monako dünyada en popüler turizm alanları olup, coğrafi olarak da Avrupa'nın en farklı ülkeleridir. İlgi çekici turistik yerlerinden bazıları; Paris, Fransız Riviera'sında bulunan Atlantik sahilleri, Alpler'in kış sporu tatil köyleri, Loire Valley Bölgesinde bulunan kaleler, Brittany, Normandiya ve Dordogne bölgeleri ise kırsal manzaralar içerir. Aynı zamanda ülke gastronomi (özellikle şarap ve peynir), tarih, kültür ve moda ile tanınır.
|Yunanistan, Türkiye, Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti ve Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti |
Avrupa'da güneş saati en fazla olan ülkeler bu coğrafyada toplanmıştır. Doğu Akdeniz plaj müdavimleri için, Türkiye ise geniş tarihi kültürü ile tarih severler için cennettir.
|İber Yarımadası (Andorra, Cebelitarık, Portekiz, İspanya)|
İber ülkeleri zengin ve özgün kültürleri, canlı şehirleri, güzel doğası ve samimi nüfusu ile harika yerler içerir.
|İtalyan Yarımadası (İtalya, Malta, San Marino, Vatikan)|
Roma, Floransa, Venedik ve Pisa kulesi birçok gezginin öncelikli güzergâhları arasındadır. Ancak bunlar İtalya'nın gezilebilir yerlerinden sadece bir kaçıdır. İtalya diğer birçok ülkeden daha fazla iç içe geçmiş bir tarih ve kültüre sahiptir.
|Rusya, Ukrayna ve Beyaz Rusya |
Rusya, Ukrayna ve Beyaz Rusya doğusunda bulunan Pasifik Okyanusuna kadar yayılan geniş alanlara sahiptir. Ukrayna'nın Karadeniz sahil beldelerindeki Odessa, Lviv ve Kiev sunabileceği çok farklı şeylerle bölgenin önde gelen güzel şehirlerindendir. Avrupa'nın kuzeyindeki Rusya ise son diktatör ülke olarak anılmaya devam edilecektir.
|İskandinavya (Danimarka, Faroe Adaları, Finlandiya, İzlanda, Norveç, İsveç)|
Dağları, gölleri, buzulları, gayzerleri, şelaleleri ve volkanları ile muhteşem sahneler sunmaktadır. Finlandiya'da, kullanılan dil ise kültür olarak İskandinav dillerinden farklıdır.
- Ayrıca bakınız.: Avrupa mikro ülkeleri
Politik olarak, bazı ülkeler Avrupa Birliğine dahildirler ve ortak bir siyasi çerçevede hareket ederler. Tüm Avrupa devletlerini birleştirme ve uluslararasılaştırma çabaları ise her dönem olduğu gibi devam etmektedir. Ancak Avrupa'da çeşitli bölge ve ülkeler için Avrupa Birliği üyeliği farklı anlamlara gelmektedir. Bu kapsamda ülkelerin değişkin fikirleri de bulunmaktadır. Rusya, Türkiye ve Kafkasya'nın bazı parçaları, bazen farklı kültür, tarih ve coğrafyaları nedeniyle Avrupa'nın değil de, Asya'nın bir parçası olarak kabul edilirler.
- Amsterdam — kanallar, Rembrandt, esrar ve kırmızı fenerler, sosyal özgürlükçü tutumların üssü
- Barselona — Akdeniz kıyısında Gaudi'nin kozmopolit evi
- Berlin — 1990 yılından bu yana yeniden birleşen Almanya'nın başkenti. Şehir Soğuk Savaş sırasında 45 yıl boyunca iki ayrı şehir haline gelmişti. Ancak Berlin duvarının yıkılmasının ardından şehir hızlı bir gelişme göstererek, uluslararası bir kültür merkezi haline geldi
- İstanbul — Doğu ve Batıdaki iki büyük kıtayı birleştiren ve kaynaştıran büyüleyici bir coğrafyada bulunan şehir
- Londra — İngiltere'nin canlı ve gerçekten çok kültürlü başkenti
- Moskova — Avrupa'nın en büyük kenti, gece hayatı ve ikonik Kremlin sarayı ile ünlü
- Paris — Seine kıyısındaki romantizmin başkenti
- Prag — Vltava Nehrine yayılmış meşhur köprüleri ile büyülü bir şehir
- Roma — Geçmişi 2700 yıl öncesine dayanan sonsuz şehir
Diğer gezilebilecek yerler[değiştir]
- El Hamra Sarayı — bir kısmı kale, diğer bir kısmı saray, bir kısmı bahçe ve kısmen şehir yönetim alanı, Granada'ya bakan çarpıcı bir ortaçağ kompleksi
- Alpler — kayak / snowboard ve dağcılık için çok popüler dağ. En yüksek zirvesi ise Mont Blanc
- Cinque Terre — resminin yapılmasına değecek, beş köyü bağlayan muhteşem bir milli park
- Białowieża Ormanı — Avrupa ovasının ortasına yayılmış, muazzam ilkel ormandan kalan son ve en büyük parça
- Blue Lagoon — kışın dondurucu soğuklarda dahi sıcaklığı 40 C° civarındaki olan jeotermal spa
- Meteora — altı doğal kumtaşı kaya sütunlar üzerine inşa edilmiş Doğu Ortodoks manastırı
- Neuschwanstein Şatosu — Almanya Bavyera Alpleri'nde tanınmış masal kalesi
- Plitvice Gölleri — büyük bir orman kompleksi ile çevrili güzel turkuaz renkli göl
- Stonehenge — Salisbury Ovası üzerinde bulunan tanınmış Neolitik ve Tunç Çağına ait taş anıt
Yazılı Avrupa kültürüne ilişkin ilk somut işaretler Antik Yunanistan'da bulunabilir. Homeros ( MÖ 800 ?), Hesiodos ( MÖ 753 ) ve Kallinos ( MÖ 728 ) Avrupa'nın bilinen en ünlü eski şairleridir. Romalıların modern Roma'yı MÖ 800 ile 1000 yılları arasında iskan ettiğini düşünüyor olabilirsiniz. Fakat günümüz arkeologları MÖ 753 yıllarında kurulduğunu düşünmektedirler.
Avrupa, Avrasya kıtasının batı bölgesinin beşte birini kapsamaktadır. Üç tarafı denizlerle çevrilmiş olan bu kıtanın doğu sınırını Ural dağları Güneydoğu sınırını ise Ural nehri oluşturmaktadır. Avrupa kıtasının güney sınırını Akdeniz, kuzey sınırını Kuzey buz denizi ve kuzey batı sınırını da Atlas Okyanusu belirlemektedir. Avrupa kıtasını Asya kıtasında İstanbul ve Çanakkale Boğazları ile ayrılırken, Cebelitarık Boğazı ile de Afrika kıtasından ayrılmaktadır. Avrupa’nın en Güney uç noktası Mora’da bulunan Matapan Burnu, en Kuzey uç noktası Kuzey burnu, en doğu uç noktası Ural dağları, Batıdaki en uç kısımda Portekiz’in Rocca Burnu'dur.
Avrupa kıtasının büyük bir bölümü ova ve platolarla kaplıdır. Yükseltisi çok az olan bu kıtanın en yüksek noktası deniz seviyesinden 5.642 m (18.510 ft) yüksekliği ile Rusya ülkesinde bulunan Kafkas Dağlarındaki Elbrus Dağı'dır. Batı Avrupa’nın en yüksek noktası ise deniz seviyesinden yüksekliği 4.810 m (15.771 ft) ile Alplerdeki Mont Blanc dağıdır. Diğer önemli dağ sıraları arasında Fransa ile İspanya arasındaki Pyrenees Dağları ile Orta Avrupa'dan Balkanlara kadar uzanan Karpat sıra dağları, Kıtanın kuzeyinde ise İskandinav yarımadasında Norveç ve İsveç'in sınırlarını oluşturan İskandinav dağları yer alır. Avrupa kıtası göl ve akarsu bakımından zengin bir bölgedir. Bu özelliği sebebiyle göl ve akarsularında önemli ölçüde taşımacılık yapılır. Avrupa'nın en uzun nehri Rusya üzerinden kıvrılıp Hazar Denizi'ne dökülen 3,530 km (2,193 mil) uzunluğu ile Volga Nehri'dir. En büyük gölü ise Rusya Federasyonu'na bağlı Karelya Cumhuriyeti ile Leningrad eyaleti sınırları içinde kalan bir tatlı su gölü olan Ladoga Gölü'dür. Tuna ve Ren nehirleri tarih öncesi çağlardan beri su yolu taşımacılığının önemli bölümünü oluşturmuştur. Tuna nehri, Almanya'daki Kara Ormanlarda başlayıp önce Viyana, Bratislava, Budapeşte ve Belgrad'tan geçerek Karadeniz'e dökülmektedir. Ren nehri ise İsviçre Alplerinden başlayarak Lihtenştayn ve Fransa sınırlarından Almanya ve Hollanda topraklarından geçtikten sonra Rotterdam'da Kuzey Denizi'ne dökülen uzunluğuyla Batı Avrupa'nın en önemli nehirlerinden biridir. Dünya'nın en çok gölü olan Finlandiya, Avrupa kıtası sınırlarındadır.
Avrupa kıtası nüfus artış oranı en düşük olan kıtadır. Bu kıtadaki nüfus artış oranı en yüksek olan ülke Rusya ikinci sıradaki ülkede Almanya'dır.
Avrupa kıtası sıcak ve soğuksu akıntılarının geçiş bölgesinde olduğu için bir çok farklı iklim görülmektedir. Kuzey kısımlardaki İskandinav ülkelerinde kışlar sert ve soğuk geçer. Kıtanın kuzey batısında yer alan bölgede batı rüzgarları ve Gulf Stream sıcak su akıntısının etkisiyle ılıman okyanus iklimi görülür. Bu iklim özellikle İngiltere, Hollanda, Danimarka, Belçika ve Almanya'yı etkilemektedir. Avrupa'nın güney kesimi ise, Akdeniz kıyısında bulunduğu için Akdeniz ikliminin etkisi altındadır. Bu bölgede yazları sıcak ve kurak, kışları ılık ve yağışlı geçer. Orta ve Doğu Avrupada ise karasal iklim koşulları hüküm sürer. Bu iklim özellikle Macaristan, Avusturya, İsveç ve Çekya gibi ülkeleri etkiler. Karasal iklime hakim bu ülkelerde kışlar soğuk ve karlı, yazlar ise sıcak geçer. Yağış özellikle ilkbahar ve yaz aylarında görülür. Yıllık ortalama yağışın çoğunluğu Alpler'de ve Slovenya'dan Yunanistan'ın batı kıyılarındaki Adriyatik Denizi boyunca olan bölgede görülmektedir. Bol yağışa neden olan diğer bölgeler İspanya'nın kuzeybatısında, Britanya Adaları'nda ve batı Norveç'tedir. Bergen, yılda 235 yağışlı gün ile Avrupa'da en fazla yağış alanına sahiptir. Çoğu yağmur, yaz aylarında, Britanya Adaları, Benelüks, Batı Almanya, Kuzey Fransa ve Güneybatı İskandinavya'yı vuran Atlantik'ten batı rüzgarları nedeniyle gerçekleşir.
Avrupa'yı ziyaret etmek için en uygun zaman yaz aylarıdır. Ağustos ayında, İngiliz Adaları, Benelüks, Almanya ve Kuzey Fransa, ortalama 23-24 °C'lik sıcaklıktadır. Yaz aylarında kuzey bölgelerde yaşayan Avrupalılar yağmurların artması ve sıcaklıkların ortalamanın altına düşmesi olasılığı sebebiyle tatil yapmak için Güney Avrupa'yı tercih ederler. Akdeniz bölgesindeki ülkeler, Avrupa'daki güneş saatlerinin ve sıcaklıkların en yüksek görüldüğü ülkelerdir. Ağustos ayı ortalama sıcaklıkları Barselona'da 28 °C, Roma'da 30 °C, ve Atina'da 33 °C 'dir. Güneye ve doğuya gittikçe sıcaklıklar artar.
Avrupa'da Akdeniz ülkelerinde bile kışlar nispeten soğuktur. Ocak ayında günlük en yüksek sıcaklığın 15 °C seviyeleride olan bölgeler İspanya'da Andalucia, bazı Yunan Adaları ve Türkiye kıyılarıdır. Batı Avrupa Ocak ayında ortalama 4-8 °C civarındadır. Ancak sıcaklıklar kışın 0 °C'nin altına düşer. Özellikle Berlin'in doğusundaki bölgeler kış aylarında oldukça soğuk olup sıcaklıklar 0 °C‘nin altında seyreder. Rusya'daki Moskova ve Saint Petersburg'un şehirleri ocak ayında ortalama -5 °C ve en düşük -10 °C sıcaklığa sahiptir ve istisnai bir durumdur. Avrupa'da kış aylarında yapılacak en güzel tatil Alplerde kış sporlarını yapmaktır. Alplerin en yüksek zirveleri sürekli kar yağışına sahiptir.
Avrupa, çok farklı ülkelerin ve kültürlerin bulunduğu Dünya'nın en küçük ikinci kıtasıdır. Avrupa'da birçok ülkenin uzun ve zor bir süreçten geçerek oluşturuduğu Avrupa Birliği kıtanın büyük bir bölümünde söz sahibidir.
Not all EU countries have adopted the euro (€), the European Union single currency (see Buy), while a few countries outside the EU have adopted it. Likewise, most — but not all — EU members and a few non-EU countries have joined the Schengen agreement, which abolished border controls between them (see Get in). Here is a handy reference table, up to date as of 2009:
|Ülke||Sembol||Para birimi||AB üyeliği||Schengen
|Beyaz Rusya||BY, .by||BYR||n||n||EET||n||n|
|Birleşik Krallık||GB, .uk||GBP||1973||n||WET||n||y|
|Bosna Hersek||BIH, .ba||BAM||n||n||CET||n||y|
|Karadağ||MNE, .me (.yu)||EUR||n¹||n||CET||n6||y|
|Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti||CY, .cy||EUR||2004||n||CET||n||n|
|Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti||KKTC, .ct.tr||TRY||n¹||n||EET||n||n|
|Kuzey Makedonya||MK, .mk||MKD||n¹||n||CET||n||y|
|Rusya||RU, .ru (.su)||RUB||n||n||MSK4||n||n|
|San Marino||RSM, .sm||EUR||n||n5||CET||n||n|
|Sırbistan||SRB, .rs (.yu)||RSD2||n1||n||CET||n6||y|
¹ Resmi AB üyesi ülkeler.
³ Kış zaman dilimi. Yaz zaman diliminde (Mart ayının son Pazar gününden, Ekim ayının son Pazar gününe kadar geçerlidir.)
4 Rusya birden fazla zaman dilimi kullanmaktadır. Kaliningrad Bölgesi'nde EET, Moskova'da MSK (UTC + 4), Çukotka Özark Okrugu ve Kamchatka'da UTC + 12'ye kadar.
5 Resmen bir Schengen üyesi değil, ancak Schengen vizesi sahiplerine genellikle giriş izni verilir.
6 Bazı Eurail geçişleri bu ülkeleri kapsamaktadır (ve sadece Almanya-Polonya geçidi Polonya'yı kapsar), ancak genel 21-ülke geçişi için geçerli değildir.
Avrupa'ya girme kuralları nereye gittiğinize bağlı olarak değişmektedir. AB vatandaşları serbestçe seyahat edebilir.
Bir Schengen ülkesine giriyorsanız ve diğer Schengen ülkelerini ziyaret etmeyi düşünüyorsanız, yalnızca bir Schengen vizesi yeterlidir. Yalnızca aşağıdaki ülkelerinin vatandaşlarının Schengen alanına giriş için vizeye gereksinimi yoktur: Arnavutluk*, Andorra, Antigua ve Barbuda, Arjantin, Avustralya, Bahamalar, Barbados, Bosna-Hersek*, Brezilya, Brunei, Kanada, Şili, Kosta Rika, Hırvatistan, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, İsrail, Japonya, Makedonya*, Malezya, Mauritius, Meksika, Monako, Karadağ*, Yeni Zelanda, Nikaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts ve Nevis, San Marino, Sırbistan*/**, Şeyseller, Singapur, Güney Kore, Tayvan*** (Çin Cumhuriyeti), Birleşik Devletler, Uruguay, Vatikan, Venezuela, ek olarak Biritanya ulusları (deniz aşırı), Hong Kong SAR veya Makao SAR pasaportları bulunduran kişiler.
(*) Arnavutluk, Bosna-Hersek, Makedonya, Karadağ ve Sırbistan vatandaşları biometrik passport ile vizesiz seyahat edebilirler,
(***) Tayvan vatandaşları ID numaralı pasaport viesiz seyahat için şarttır.
AB vatandaşları dışındaki vizesiz ziyaretçiler, Schengen Bölgesi'ndeki 180 günlük bir süre içinde, 90 günden fazla kalamaz ve kalış süresince çalışamazlar. Bu süre Schengen Bölgesi'ndeki herhangi bir ülkeye girdiğinizde başlar ve bir Schengen ülkesinden başka bir Schengen ülkesine geçerseniz sıfırlanmaz ve devam eder. Bununla birlikte, Yeni Zelanda vatandaşları yalnızca belirli Schengen ülkelerini ziyaret ettikleri takdirde 90 günden fazla kalabilirler.
Eğer AB üyesi vatandaşı değilseniz, Schengen Bölgesi'ne girip çıkarken pasaportunuzun damgalandığından emin olun. Eğer bir Schengen ülkesine girişte damga vurulması unutulursa, Schengen Bölgesi'nden ayrılmaya çalıştığınızda kalış süresinizle ilgili sorun yaşayabilirsiniz; yada çıkış damgası olmadan herhangi bir Schengen ülkesinden ayrılırsanız, Schengen Bölgesine bir daha giriş yapmak istediğinizde, önceki ziyaretinizde fazla kalmış sayıldığınızdan giriş isteğiniz reddedilebilir. Shengen bölgesindeki seyehatinizde pasapotunuza giriş yada çıkış damganızın işlenmemesi durumunda sınır denetim görevlilerine yasal kalış sürenizi aşmadığınızı kanıtlayabilmeniz için uçuş kartlarınızı, ulaşım biletlerinizi, ATM veya harcama fişlerinizi saklamanız yararınıza olacaktır.
- İngiltere'de ikamet hakkı olan İngilizler ve Cebelitarık'a bağlı İngiliz deniz aşırı ülke vatandaşları "Avrupa Birliği amaçları için Birleşik Krallık vatandaşları" olarak kabul edilir ve bu nedenle Schengen Bölgesi'ne sınırsız erişime hak kazanırlar.
Avrupa Birliği ülkelerinde benzer gümrük kontrolleri yapılmaktadır. Bir gümrük birliği oluştururlar ve genellikle AB ülkeleri arasında giderken gümrüğe girmek zorunda kalmazsınız. Gümrük idaresine ihtiyaç duyan bazı mallar ya da AB içerisinde seyahat eden özel izinler vb. halen vardır ve gümrükler sadece sınırda değil, aynı zamanda kontrollerde bulunabilir. Bir evde beslenen hayvan, silah, olağanüstü miktarda alkol veya benzeri varsa ayrıntıları kontrol edin.
AB ülkeleri ile Schengen ülkeleri arasındaki farkı not edin.
Avrupa'daki en büyük havalimanı merkezleri, sırasıyla,, Londra (LON: LCY, LHR, LGW, STN, LTN, SEN), Frankfurt (FRA), Paris (CDG, ORY), Madrid (MAD), and Amsterdam (AMS), Avrupa'daki neredeyse her yere bağlantılar vardır.Bununla birlikte, neredeyse her Avrupa Başkentinden diğer bütün büyük şehirlere direk uçuş bulunmaktadır. Bazı küçük havalimanları bağlantılı uçuşlar için iyi bir alterntiftir: örneğin Viyana VIE), Ortadoğu ve Doğu Avrupa'ya çok iyi bir uçuş ağına sahipken, [[Helsinki # By Uçak [Helsinki]] '(HEL IATA) Doğu Asya' dan geliyorsa, coğrafi açıdan aktarma yapılacak en uygun yerdir.
Son varış noktanıza bağlı olarak, çoğu havaalanı tren şebekesine (bazen doğrudan yüksek hızlı hatlara) bağlı olduğu için son bağlantınızı trenle yapmak mantıklı olabilir ve bazı havayolu şirketleri demiryolu şirketleri ile iş birliği yaparak hem uçak hem de tren bileti sunmaktadır (genellikle bu şekilde biletler daha uygun olabilir.
Birleşik Krallık ve ABD arasındaki nostaljik gemi seferleri pahalı olmasına rağmen hala mümkün. The easiest option is by the historic, and only remaining Ocean Liner operator, Cunard Line, which sails around 10 times per year in each direction, but expect to pay USD1,000–2,000 for the cheapest tickets on the 6-day voyage between Southampton and New York. If your pockets are not deep enough, your options of crossing the North Atlantic without flying are pretty much limited to freighter travel and "hitchhiking" with a private boat.
Most major cruise ships that ply the waters of Europe during summer (June–September) also do cruises in Latin America and Southeast Asia for the rest of the year. That means those ships have a transatlantic journey twice per year, at low prices considering the length of the trip (at least a week). These are often called positioning cruises. MSC has several ships from the Caribbean to Europe at April and May.
There are several lines crossing the Mediterranean, the main ports of call in North Africa is Tangier in Morocco and Tunis in Tunisia, but there is also a little known option of going via Cyprus where you can use Louis Cruises crossings to Port Said in Egypt and Haifa in Israel as a regular ferry service. Keep in mind though, that you can only do this on routes out of Cyprus, and it requires special arrangements – Varianos Travel in Nicosia seem to be the only tour agency offering this option. If you're time rich, but otherwise poor, it may be possible to "hitchhike" a private boat also here.
There are virtually no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the Schengen Agreement, except under special circumstances during major events. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen country is valid in all other Schengen countries. Be careful: not all European Union countries are Schengen countries, and not all Schengen countries are members of the EU. See the table above for the current list.
Note that in 2015 the free mobility within the European Union has been disrupted somewhat by the large number of refugees entering the area. Some borders have been closed (at least partly) and traffic at some is much less smooth than normal. Identification documents are now being asked for at some boarder crossings. Expect delays at international borders.
Airports in Europe are divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere. If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear passport control in the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks. However, if travelling between an EU Schengen country and a non-EU Schengen country, customs controls are still in place.
Travel between a Schengen country and a non-Schengen country will entail the normal border checks. Regardless of whether you are travelling within the Schengen Area, at some ports and airports, staff will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport (this may now also occur at land borders, particularly Sweden, Denmark and Switzerland).
As an example of the practical implications on the traveller:
- Travel from Germany to France (both EU, both Schengen): no controls
- Travel from Germany to Switzerland (both Schengen, Switzerland not in EU): customs checks, but no immigration control
- Travel from France to the United Kingdom (both EU, UK not in Schengen): immigration control, but no customs check
- Travel from Switzerland to the United Kingdom: immigration and customs checks
Citizens of EEA/Schengen countries never require visas or permits for a stay of any length in any other EEA/Schengen country for any purpose. The only remaining exception is the employment of Croatian workers in some countries.
Europe, and particularly Western and Central Europe, has trains which are fast, efficient, and cost-competitive with flying. High-speed trains like the Italian Frecciarossa, the French TGV, the German ICE, the Spanish AVE and the cross-border Eurostar and Thalys services speed along at up to 320 km/h (200 mph) and, when taking into account travel time to the airport and back, are often faster than taking the plane. The flip side is that tickets bought on the spot can be expensive, although there are good discounts available if you book in advance or take advantage of various deals. Roughly speaking, European high-speed rail tickets work similar to airline tickets with the best offers for non-refundable tickets on low demand routes and times and high prices for "last minute".
If you want flexibility without spending an arm and a leg, various passes can be a good deal. In particular, the Inter Rail (for Europeans) and Eurail (for everybody else) passes offer good value if you plan on traveling extensively around Europe (or even a single region) and want more flexibility than cheap plane (or some advance purchase train) tickets can offer. Sometimes individual railroads offer one of passes for their country, but they are often seasonal and/or only announced on short notice.
The most extensive and most reliable train travel planner for all of Europe is the one belonging to the German railways (DB), which can be found here in English.
As most long-distance trains and almost all high-speed trains are powered electrically and through economies of scale even in Diesel-trains, trains are "greener" than cars and a lot "greener" than planes. How trains fare compared to buses depends mostly on three factors: the fuel (if electric, than how is said electricity generated), the occupancy and road congestion (congested roads make buses inefficient). The most fuel-efficient train that currently operates in Europe, Deutsche Bahn's ICE3 consumes the equivalent of 0.3 liters of gasoline in electricity per seat per 100 km. If you are a proponent of ecotourism the website of Deutsche Bahn offers a CO2 emission calculation tool to help you calculate the Carbon footprint for your trip.
Most large cities in Europe have an extensive urban rail network.
All flights within and from the European Union limit liquids, gels and creams in hand baggage to 100mL/container, carried in a transparent, zip-lock plastic bag (1L or less). The bag must be presented during security checks and only one bag per passenger is permitted.
- Main article: Discount airlines in Europe
Dozens of budget airlines allow cheap travel around Europe, sometimes cheaper than the train or even bus fares for the same journey, however "legacy" airlines (or their subsidiaries) can be a better deal when you have luggage. Currently the cheapest flights are often offered by low cost airlines such as Eurowings, EasyJet, Norwegian, Ryanair, Transavia, Vueling and WizzAir. All of these flights should be booked on the internet well in advance, otherwise the price advantage may become non-existent. Always compare prices with major carriers like British Airways, Air France-KLM or Lufthansa. Only in very few cases prices are higher than €80 on any airline when booking a month or more ahead of time (except on very long routes e.g. Dublin–Istanbul). You should also make sure where the airport is located, since some low cost airlines name very small airports by the next major city, even if the distance is up to two hours drive by bus (e.g. Ryanair and Wizzair's "Frankfurt"-Hahn, which is not Frankfurt/Main International). Also note that budget airlines tickets include little service; account for fees (e.g. on luggage, snacks, boarding passes and so on) when comparing prices.
Before the 2010s, buses played a niche role at best in European intercity transportation. Cheap flights and high speed rail relegated them to second or third fiddle, serving the needs of migrants, secondary routes, or countries with poor rail, such as the Balkans, and sparsely inhabited areas such as the Nordic countries or Russia. However, legal reforms in Germany and later France have allowed bus companies to serve cities that had previously seen no or hardly any intercity service.
Cooperation between bus companies may be non-existent. Expect to have to check connections locally or separately for every company involved. Systems vary from one country to the next, though the bigger players (e.g. Flixbus, Eurolines, Student Agency) are increasingly active in several countries.
For a long time, buses mostly served package tours, or were chartered for a specific trip. One exception to this was in a sense the European answer to Chinatown buses, companies based in Eastern Europe, the Balkans or Turkey and mostly serving as a means for the diaspora to visit the home of their forebears. While most of those companies still exist doing what they always did, they are today overshadowed by more tourist oriented companies with denser networks and a bigger focus on domestic routes.
Eurolines connects over 500 destinations, covering the whole of Europe and Morocco. Eurolines buses make very few stops in smaller cities, and are generally only viable for travel between large cities. Eurolines offers several types of passes[ölü/kırık bağlantı] but each individual journey must be booked in advance of its departure date/time. That means that, depending on availability, you may or may not be able to simply arrive at the bus terminal and board any available bus. The pass works well for travellers who either prefer only to see major cities, or who intend to use the pass in conjunction with local transportation options.
Touring (German variant of Eurolines), Sindbad[ölü/kırık bağlantı] (Polish), Linebus (Spanish) and National Express (from the UK) are other options. Newer players include Flixbus, student agency, Megabus and ouibus. Most of these companies originated in a certain country and still mostly serve that country, but cross border services or domestic services in a third country are becoming increasingly common.
The Baltic sea has several routes running between the major cities (Gdańsk, Stockholm, Helsinki, Tallinn, Riga, etc.) Most ships are very large and on a par with Caribbean cruise liners both in size and service.
In the Atlantic, Smyril Line is the only company sailing to the rather remote North Atlantic islands of Iceland and the Faroe Islands. It sails from Denmark, which also has numerous lines to Norway and Sweden. There are also numerous services to Denmark, the Benelux and even across the Biscay to Spain. Further south there is a weekly service from Portimão to the Canary Islands via the remote volcanic Madeira island.
There are unsurprisingly many ferry routes to, from, and around the British Isles, not just between Great Britain and Ireland, but also around the numerous other islands of the archipelago, most extensively in the Western and Northern Isles of Scotland. From southern England and the Republic of Ireland, several routes still cross the English Channel to France and Spain, despite the opening of the Channel Tunnel. The Channel Islands are also all connected to one another and to France and England by high-speed catamaran. In the North Sea, services operate from Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands to ports on the east coast of England. The hovercraft has been withdrawn from Cross-Channel service due to competition from the Channel Tunnel, but there is still a hovercraft service from mainland Britain to the Isle of Wight.
In the Mediterranean Sea a large number of ferries and cruise ships operate between Spain, Italy and southern France, including Corsica, Sardinia and the Balearics. And on the Italian peninsula's east coast, ferries ply across the Adriatic sea to Albania, Croatia, Montenegro and Greece, with Bari as one major terminal of many.
And finally the Black Sea has several ferries sailing across its waters, although service can be fairly sketchy at times. Poti, Istanbul and Sevastopol are the main ports. Nearly all the Black Sea ports have a ferry going somewhere, but rarely anywhere logical – i.e., often along the same stretch of coast.
There are various ferries on the larger lakes and for crossing rivers. There are several regularly running cruise-lines on the larger rivers like the Rhine, Danube and the Volga. Boating excursions within Europe, particularly along the scenic rivers and between many of the islands in the Mediterranean, are an excellent way to combine travel between locations with an adventure along the way. Accommodations range from very basic to extremely luxurious depending upon the company and class of travel selected. Another famous line is the Hurtigruten cruise-ferries which sails all along Norway's amazing coastline and fjords.
- Ayrıca bakınız.: Driving in Europe
Driving in Europe is expensive – fuel costs around €1.30-1.40 per litre in most of the EU, while often cheaper in Russia. Rentals are around two to three times more expensive than in North America. Highway tolls are very common, city centre congestion charges increasingly so, and even parking can work up to €50 per day.
Western Europe for the most part has good road conditions and an extensive and well developed highway network, whereas Eastern Europe is still working hard on the large backlog left from communist days.
Avoid large cities if you are not used to driving in Europe. Old towns are impossible or difficult to go through by car. If you arrive by car, consider to park in a suburb, and use public transportation.
Winter driving is an issue in northern Europe and the high mountains, and occasionally in the south.
There are no uniform speed limits across the union, the fabled limitless German autobahn is now limited to mostly rural sections. The majority of motorways/freeways have a 110-130 kph (70-80 mph) speed limit, while the limit on undivided highways varies between 80 and 100 km/h (50-65 mph). For North Americans, a major difference is the left lane on motorways, which are not the "fast lane" you're used to, but rather the "passing lane", it's illegal to overtake on the right, so you should only occupy the outer lane when you are overtaking someone; stay there, and you will have other vehicles tailgating while flashing their lights in annoyance and traffic police eager to fine you. Remember to use turn signals when changing lanes.
Except for priority streets (check the symbol in the table) there is a general duty to give way to traffic from your right in crossings and intersections that are not marked, and other drivers have every expectation you adhere to this. This also applies to unmarked T-intersections, unlike in North America England, Australia, Japan and most other places where the ending road should normally yield to the through road even if unmarked. But in the ubiquitous roundabouts (circles) you find everywhere across the continent, cars already in the circle give way to incoming drivers (coming from their right) unless there is a yield sign in front of the roundabout. Finally, don't do right turns on red lights (unless for example, in Germany the light features a green right arrow sign, in which case right turning right on red is permitted, but important to note, only after coming to a dead stop first, otherwise a $120 fine can be charged despite you having arrived in the country that day), it's illegal, and because it's not common practice, also dangerous.
Markings and signs are similar throughout Europe but variations in design and interpretations exist so it may be very practical to research each country individually before you travel. In Germany there are so many signs that even the Minister of Traffic showed on television that he was not exactly sure what they all meant. Several signs are strung one after the other on the same pole and are in some way related to each other.
Avoid large cities if you are not used to driving in Europe. Most city centres were built long before the introduction of automobiles, and were not meant to cope with the levels of traffic common these days. So for the most part it may be a slow, frustrating and potentially dangerous experience, and even then, finding a parking spot can potentially take a long time and cost several Euros when you find it. Streets in the old city centres also tend to be very narrow and difficult to drive on. In addition, Instead park on the outskirts of town, where it is often free, and use the, usually extensive public transit system instead. If you are renting, try to "work around having a car" while visiting large cities.
- Age: Almost everywhere, especially in the EU, you need to be 18 years old to drive, even supervised, and in countries with Learning schemes, it's usually an exhaustive procedure to get a permit, and rarely applicable to foreign citizens anyway. Exceptions include Portugal, Ireland and the UK.
- A warning triangle is compulsory nearly anywhere, and so is using it in case of breakdowns. An alcohol testing device is now mandatory in France (even for non-alcoholics).
- Hi-Visibility (reflective) vests are compulsory in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Portugal and Spain and gaining popularity elsewhere.
- Headlamp Adjusters are also compulsory equipment in most countries, but in the U.K. and Ireland only if you are driving a continental car.
- Original Registration Document is compulsory
- Motor vehicle insurance certificate is compulsory
- A black and white, 1-3 letter country identity sticker is compulsory for cars without EU license plates.
- International driving permit, while it's not compulsory for certain nationalities in some European countries, it's cheap, and could potentially save you from nasty incidents with authorities.
If you plan to rent a car to drive around Europe, it often makes sense to check the rates in different countries rather than just hire a car in the country of arrival. The price differences can be substantial for longer rentals, to the extent that it can make sense to adjust your travel plans accordingly i.e. if you plan on travelling around Scandinavia by car, it will often be much cheaper to fly into Germany and rent a car there. Compared to North America, you should be prepared for smaller, but more efficient cars, and most of them have manual transmission, so don't expect an automatic without requesting one while placing your order (and often paying extra).
In any case driving in Europe is an expensive proposition, petrol (gas) prices hover around €1.30-1.60 per litre ($7–8 per US gallon) in much of Europe, while often somewhat cheaper in Russia. Rentals are around 2-3 more expensive than in North America. Highway tolls are very common, city centre congestion charges increasingly so, and even parking can work up to €50 ($70) per day in the most expensive cities. Driving can be an enjoyable and feasible way to see the countryside and smaller cities, but few Europeans would rent a car on for a vacation to a city such as Paris, Brussels or Amsterdam.
If you plan to rent a car to drive around Europe, it often makes sense to check the rates in different countries rather than just hire a car in the country of arrival. The price differences can be substantial for longer rentals, to the extent that it can make sense to adjust your travel plans accordingly, e.g. if you plan on travelling around Scandinavia by car, it will often be much cheaper to fly into Germany and rent a car there. Compared to North America, you should be prepared for smaller, more efficient cars, and most of them have manual transmission, so don't expect an automatic without requesting one when placing your order (and often paying extra). Some rental agencies also have stipulations in their contracts, prohibiting the rental of a car in one country and taking it to some others. It is for example common that a car rented in Germany may not be taken to Poland due to concerns of theft. This is less common the other way round, so if you are planning on visiting both countries by rental car, it might be easier (and cheaper) to rent a car in Poland and drive to Germany with it.
- Ayrıca bakınız.: Cycling in Europe
Cycling conditions vary greatly between different countries, between city centres, suburbs and countryside and between different cities in any one country, so see our individual destination articles. In general terms, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Denmark are better destinations for cyclists than – say – Poland.
The European cycle route network[ölü/kırık bağlantı] or EuroVelo consists of 14 routes linking virtually every country on the continent. Some of these routes are not finished but plans are to have 60,000 km of bike lanes; as of mid-2012 around 45,000 km were in place.
Bike share systems are becoming increasingly common, especially in countries like France or Germany. One of the biggest companies in this emerging business is nextbike, who mostly honor memberships in one city for reduced rates in another. Other cities like Paris have city run systems which only cover one place, but there are often special discount rates for tourists.
Hitchhiking is a common way of travelling in some parts of Europe, especially in former eastern bloc countries. It can be a pleasant way to meet lots of people, and to travel without spending too many euros.
Note that in the former eastern bloc, you may run into language problems while hitchhiking, especially if you speak only English. It is not advisable to hitchhike in former Yugoslavia, for example between Croatia and Serbia, because you could run into real big problems with nationalists. Between Croatia and Slovenia it's usually not a problem. In Moldova and Ukraine, it's better to take a train or bus. In western Europe, especially in the Netherlands and Germany, it can be weary and tedious to hitch-hike.
Another method is hitchhiking through pre-arranged ride sharing. Although this is not free, the price is usually much lower than even the cheapest bus or train-fare. There are several websites, most of them country-specific and/or catering to a specific language group, but long routes are not at all uncommon and international travellers are increasingly using this form of transport.
Birçok Avrupa dili Hint-Avrupa dil ailesindendir. Ortak bir kökenden gelmekte, bu yüzden benzer kelime bilgisi (baba, anne, sayılar, vb) ve gramer yapısına sahiptir. Further grammatical similarities and shared vocabulary have come about by close linguistic contact between European languages, with the influence of Classical Greek and Latin being particularly evident even in non-related ones. They can be broadly divided into the following sub-families:
- Germanic languages — English, German, Dutch and the Nordic languages (Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish)
- Romance languages, which are the descendants of Latin — national languages French, Spanish, Catalan, Portuguese, Italian and Romanian, as well as regional languages such as Corsican and Galician.
- Balto-Slavic languages — are found throughout Eastern Europe and the Balkans; such as the Slavic Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian, Czech, Polish, Serbian, and the Baltic Latvian and Lithuanian.
- Celtic languages — found in the British Isles and France and include Breton, Cornish, Irish, Manx, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh.
- Other Indo-European languages include Albanian, Armenian and Greek.
There are also languages not related to the Indo-European languages. The Uralic language family includes Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian and Sami. Other exceptions include Turkish, Azerbaijani, Maltese, Georgian and Basque.
Languages in the same sub-family share much of the vocabulary and grammatical features, but training is often needed even to recognise these relationships. Speaking a Romance language may be of some limited use in Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Romania, while the same is true if you speak one of the Slavic languages in the East.
English proficiency varies greatly across the continent, but tends to increase the further north you get, in the Benelux and particularly the Nordic countries almost everyone can communicate in English with varying degrees of fluency. German-speaking areas in the middle also have good levels of proficiency. In the south and east you'll often be out of luck, especially outside major cities and tourist centres. English is nonetheless gradually becoming the main foreign language also in much of eastern Europe.
Russian is still widely studied in Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia and Azerbaijan. It was widely studied as a second language in Central and Eastern Europe by the generations who lived through the Communist era. Countries that were part of the former Soviet Union have significant Russian speaking minorities.
German is also a useful foreign language in Eastern Europe.
The Latin alphabet stems from Europe, and is used for most European languages, often with some modified or additional letters. The related Cyrillic alphabet is used for Russian, some other Slavic languages and some non-Slavic minority languages spoken in Russia and other parts of the former Soviet Union. Both these alphabets were derived from the Greek alphabet. Other writing systems in use include the Georgian and Armenian alphabets.
The all too common concept of trying to "do Europe" is pretty unrealistic, and will most likely, if not ruin your vacation, then at least make it less enjoyable. While you can cross Europe on train in a weekend and fly across it in a few hours, it has more historical sites than any other continent, with more than 400 World Heritage Sites on the continent and thousands of other sites worth seeing. Instead of running a mad dash through Europe in an attempt to get the ritual photos of you in front of the Colosseum, the Eiffel Tower, Big Ben etc. over and done with, the key is prioritize, pick 2–3 sights you really want to see per week, and plan a route from that. There are likely to be some amazing, world class sights and attractions that you haven't even thought about, somewhere in between two given cities, and finding those will – in all likelihood – be infinitely more rewarding than following the beaten down post card route. Each of the larger cities can entertain a visitor for more than a week, and Europe is certainly worth more than one visit.
Tarihi ve kültürel yerler[değiştir]
Europe is full of deserted archaeological sites, as well as living old towns. Structures from Ancient Greece are scattered around the eastern Mediterranean, including Delphi, Olympia, Sparta, Ephesus, Lycia and of course the Parthenon in Athens.
The Roman Empire left ruins across the continent. Rome itself has the magnificent Colosseum, Pantheon and the Roman Forum. Many Roman ruins can also be found in Spain, such as the remains at Merida, Italica, Segovia, Toledo and Tarragona. With 47 sites, Italy has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites of any country in the world, directly followed by Spain with 43. Though notably less, France, (southern and western) Germany and England also have some Roman sites, as have most other regions that were once part of the Roman Empire. Several of those sites are UNESCO world heritage sites as well.
Constantinople's (now Istanbul's) most famous landmark, Hagia Sofia, is a testament to the continuity from the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans. After almost a millennium of being the largest Eastern Orthodox (Christian) cathedral in the world, it was converted in 1453 into one of the world's most impressive mosques.
The city-states and smaller states of the Middle Ages, especially in Italy, the Netherlands and Germany, showed their wealth through churches and council buildings. Most present or historical capital cities have some of their grandiose palaces, theatres or opera houses open to the public. Examples include the Medici Villas and palazzi in and around Florence, the palaces of Paris, or the former royal residence in Kraków, Poland. As parts of Spain were held by Muslims from the 8th to 15th centuries, there are visible influences in architecture as well, including the world-famous Alhambra in Granada, as well as, La Mezquita, the former mosque in Córdoba that was converted to a Roman Catholic cathedral in 1236.
While Europe is shaped by mankind, arguably more than any other continent, it also contains large areas of wilderness; especially in the north and east. Many mountain ranges are known for their beauty, such as the Alps, the Caucasus, and the Carpathian Mountains. Some other wonders of nature are the fjords of Norway, and the Icelandic Hot Springs. Most countries, except the smallest, have a national park system; see United Kingdom National Parks and Finnish National Parks.
There are more than 360 national parks on the continent, which is not a surprise since Europe is the world's second-most densely populated continent. Many parks are small, some less than a single km², but there are also some expansive national parks to explore. The Vatnajökull National Park on Iceland is the largest, covering around 12,000 km² (7,500 sq miles), and the fascinating national parks of the Arctic Svalbard are not far behind, while Yugyd Va National Park in the Russian Urals is largest on the mainland itself. In total the national parks of Europe encompass an area of around 98,000 km² (37,000 sq miles).
Europe is considered the spiritual home of classical music and opera, and the various European capitals are home to some amazing 'old world' opera houses, where the hundreds of years of history often enhances the experience into something otherworldly. However if opera singers give you headache, then fear not, since Europe has more modern music festivals than you could possibly ever visit. The Roskilde Festival in Roskilde, Sziget fesztivál in Budapest and reigning champion Glastonbury, weighing in at 195,000 drunk souls, are widely considered the 3 big ones, but there are many more significant events. Alternatively, the revival Woodstock festival in Poland, while it doesn't boast the star-studded line-up of some commercial festivals, is great for those who want to do it on the cheap (there is no ticket to buy) and it attracted 700,000 music fans in 2011. Furthermore, there is the "Donauinselfest" which takes place every year in Vienna, and is said to be Europe's biggest free open-air event.
While Europe is known for its opera houses, the London West End is also home to many world leading productions of musical theatre.
Perhaps no other field has seen stronger European integration than sport. Most professional sports have Europe-wide leagues in place, and nearly every sport has a bi-annual European Championship.
- Association Football. (commonly referred to as just "football", called soccer in the United States and other countries where other sports are called Football) If you are already a football fan the game hardly gets any better than watching your favourite team battle it out against the world's greatest football clubs in the Champions League or the Europa League. Games in the pan-European leagues usually take place mid-week to allow for games in the national leagues to take place during the weekend. For the popular teams the tickets are often sold out weeks in advance. The strongest domestic leagues are (in no particular order) the German Bundesliga, the English Premier League, the Spanish Primera División, the Italian Serie A and (to a lesser extent) the French Ligue 1. The championship for national teams is held every four years in years that also have Olympic summer games. (e.g. 2020) usually in one or two predetermined host countries. Lodging and transport may get crowded and expensive in the host country during such events and there will be big screens in public places all over Europe showing at the very least the games of the country you are in, but often all games.
- Formula One car racing is a sport that excites people all across the continent, with many of the races being held at European venues.
- Cycling. Another sport that enjoys much wider popularity in Europe than virtually the rest of the world. Hundreds of competitions take place every year, but the 3 unrivalled events of the year are the Tour de France, the Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España, where thousands upon thousands of spectators line up along routes that often extend more than one hundred kilometres. The whole season is managed in a league like format called the Protour.
- Skiing (alpine skiing) is a major sport in the mountainous countries of Scandinavia, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France and Italy.
- Rugby football (rugby union) is an English sport that has a huge following in other countries such as Scotland, Ireland, Wales, France and Italy. Rugby League originated in Northern England and still has a following there, but to most Europeans "Rugby" means Union.
- Basketball. The pan-European Euroleague is the highest tier of professional basketball in Europe, featuring teams from 18 European countries and some of the best basketball you'll find outside the NBA. The regular season runs Oct-Jan and play-offs take place Jan-May.
- Handball (team handball or Olympic handball). An annual pan-European tournament, the Champions League, takes place every year. While the sport is little known outside Europe, it has a sizable following on the continent. Two teams with seven players each pass and bounce a ball to throw it into the football-style goal of the opposing team. The preeminent countries in this sport are Germany, the Nordic countries as well as France and some parts of the Balkans. As it is an indoor sport, halls can get quite packed and even 20,000 might be a sellout crowd. European championships are usually held in the early months of even years. World championships are still dominated by European teams and are usually held in the early months of odd-numbered years though not always in Europe.
- Ice hockey is hugely popular in some countries of the former Eastern block, and in Norway, Finland and Sweden. The Russian (plus some teams from other countries) Kontinental Hockey League (often abbreviated KHL) is said to be the second best after the NHL and very close in quality as well as fierceness of competition. KHL expansion further into Europe is a perennial issue in the sport and often used as negotiation leverage by top teams in European leagues. The Ice Hockey World Cup, taking place yearly in May, is almost always held in Europe and usually draws huge crowds, especially when it is held in one of the "Big European Four" countries. For some countries (notably Slovakia and Finland), success in ice hockey is almost as much an issue of national pride as success in soccer is to others.
- American football is also played by a growing number of enthusiasts, yet nowhere near the levels it enjoys in North America. The NFL is in the process of changing that, through the international series in London. Even some domestic events, like national finals or European championships may draw crowds in the five digit range. European competitions such as they are, are dominated by German, Austrian and to a lesser degree French teams all of which employ non-native (particularly American) talent in coaching and playing. While the chances of coming out of a European league to play in the NFL are slim, pay and benefits are usually enough to enable a bit of travel besides "playing for pizza" as the Grisham novel would have it. Unlike many other sports that unfortunately have to deal with hooliganism and other problems, the atmosphere at American Football matches is usually very friendly and there is no problem taking the young ones to a game.
- Ayrıca bakınız.: Winter sports in Switzerland, Winter sports in Austria, Winter in the Nordic countries
Europe is home to some fantastic ski resorts; the Alps are home of some of the best ski resorts in the world, and there are more here than anywhere else. Austria and Switzerland contain hundreds of resorts alone. Other Alpine ski destinations include France, Italy, Slovenia, Germany (Bavaria) and even tiny Liechtenstein. The largest area is Les Portes du Soleil, made up of 13 linked ski resorts in Switzerland and France, boasting over 650 km of marked runs.
But the fun doesn't stop in the Alps; Norway and Sweden feature some of the world's most civilised and family oriented skiing areas, but the lower altitude also means it's a trade-of for shorter runs - Åre is the biggest, while way up north Riksgränsen allows skiing well into the summer. Scotland is home of 5 ski resorts, Nevis Range has the highest vertical drop at 566 metres, while Glenshee is the largest. A surprising option is Sierra Nevada in Spain, fairly large, just a couple of hours' drive from the Mediterranean coast, and with a season often running into May - you can ski in the morning, and chill on the beach in the afternoon. To the north the Pyrenees shared with France and Andorra also offers excellent skiing at up to 2,700m (8,000 ft) altitude, Domaine Tourmalet is the largest resort in the area with over 100 km of pistes.
Eastern Europe is seeing increasing popularity since prices are much lower than elsewhere on the continent. The downside is that facilities are not as expansive or modern as elsewhere in Europe, but things are rapidly improving. Slovenia is a cheap alternative in the über-expensive Alps, Kranjska Gora is the largest resort in the country. The Carpathian mountains, with the highest runs at almost 2,200 m (7200 ft), is another popular area; Poiana Brasov (Romania, 20 km, 11 lifts) Zakopane (Poland, 30 km, 20 lifts) and Jasna (Slovakia, 29 km, 24 lifts) are the largest and most popular areas in the respective countries. Despite being in the middle of the Mediterranean, Cyprus has a growing ski tourism in the Troodos Mountains.
Many cities in Europe are great for cycling.
EuroVelo cycling routes is a development of many different bike routes throughout the continent, that cater for nearly all desires and levels of difficulties. In all of the different countries of the continent, parts of these routes exists. Some are already developed, some are only "under construction".
Europe has several places for whitewater sports and canyoning.
The rich diversity and cultural heritage, the presence of centuries-old artisan traditions and fine industries, as well as a number of the world's most famous brands in all sorts of luxury and premium goods make Europe a shopper's paradise. There are regional specialities to be bought from every corner of the continent, and the main shopping streets and department stores in many a European metropolis are shopping meccas drawing eager buyers from all over the globe.
In terms of less glamorous purchases, Europe generally poses little problems. Retail is well-developed in most countries, and you should not have trouble finding stores offering basic groceries and other first-need items almost anywhere but the most remote, uninhabited areas. Issues such as store opening hours or credit card acceptance, however, vary greatly between countries, as does the probability of the salespeople speaking any foreign languages.
The euro (symbol: €, EUR) is the common currency of many (although not all) countries of the European Union, removing the need to exchange currencies when going from one country to the next and beneficial to both pan-European business and travellers. One euro equals 100 cents; sometimes referred to as 'euro cents' to differentiate them from their U.S. and other counterparts.
Those countries which have replaced their own national currencies are commonly called the Eurozone. Euros are sometimes accepted in European countries outside the Eurozone, but not universally, and at shops and restaurants the exchange rate may not be in your favour. Many hotels outside of the Eurozone also price and accept payment in euros.
Avrupa'da, otomatik vezne makineleri bulunmaktadır. Çeşitli Avrupa Banka kartları ve kredi kartları kabul edilmektedir. Ancak, yabancı ülke para birimi veya yabancı ülkelerden para çekimi (genellikle çekilen miktarın yüzdesi kadar ve birkaç euro masraf alınır) için ücret farkı ödemeye hazırlıklı olmalısınız. Makineleri kullanmadan önce üzerlerinde bulunan etiket ve bildirimleri okumalısınız.
Avrupa'da bulunan ATM'lerin tuş takımlarında genellikle harf bulunmamaktadır. Ayrıca 4 basamaktan daha uzun PIN'ler sorun oluşturabilir.
Credit card acceptance is not as universal as in the United States, and mostly limited to only VISA and Mastercard, with Mastercard much more widely accepted in some countries. American Express and Diners Club acceptance is quite limited in some countries, and some retailers consciously opt out from accepting them due to higher fees they would incur. JCB and UnionPay are also not readily accepted, and Discover's coverage is scant.
Many cashless transactions are actually being done by debit cards, which are technically processed differently than credit cards and using the latter may cause the retailer to need to use an alternative procedure. This is especially true with older-style credit cards without a chip, which may simply not get accepted. Most Europan countries have moved to a chip and PIN system, where credit cards all have a chip built in and you have to punch in your PIN code instead of signing a receipt.
Procedures for handling payments with unfamiliar cash types often involve checking the card against user IDs, so do not be surprised or offended if asked for one and do have a document with a photo handy, preferably a passport as a driver's license is often not deemed a valid ID in many European countries for such purposes.
Do note that actual credit and debit card acceptance schemes vary between countries, and you may be surprised to find out that your card inexplicably does not work at some points of sale in some locations, despite being otherwise fine. Moreover, the card acceptance signs displayed may not mean what you may expect them to, as "fine print" may deem your particular type of VISA or Mastercard not acceptable (e.g. because only chip-enabled cards are covered). It is always advisable to have cash at hand, also because many points of sale will not accept cards at all, for example stalls at Christmas markets.
With 50 intricately linked countries and 28 currencies squeezed into an area roughly the size of Canada or China, the planet's largest diaspora due to the continent's colonial ties with virtually the entire world, and more tourism arrivals than anywhere else, currency exchange is a fact of life in Europe, and the market is probably better established than anywhere else in the world, and readily available nearly everywhere. Banks will, nearly without exception, exchange all European currencies, and within the European Union banks will accept nearly any currency that is legally traded abroad. Specialized currency exchange companies are also widespread, especially in major tourist destinations, and are often slightly cheaper than banks. However, with ATMs accepting all major credit and debit cards available everywhere, many visitors simply withdraw money electronically to get as close to the real exchange rate as possible.
Peşin ve taksit ödeme[değiştir]
The EU is generally expensive for most visitors.
When buying souvenirs, it costs substantially less to purchase from smaller stalls than the stores affiliated with to larger establishments.
As for dining, most service items that are complimentary in your home country (e.g. water, bread) may not be so in the continent.
However most goods and services offered in the region are required to include value added tax (VAT) in their published prices, especially the large print. The VAT is refundable if you are a non-resident and intend to export the good you purchased outside the EU, just make sure you request for a voucher from the store and show them to customs at your exit point. To be safe, be on the lookout for a VAT refund sticker at the door or window of the store.
Tipping practices vary between countries in Europe. In most countries, tipping is not required, and displayed prices are required to include all service fees and taxes.
Masraflar ve vergiler[değiştir]
Many European countries are expensive; especially western Europe, large cities, and touristed areas. For souvenirs, prices will often be less at smaller stalls than in larger stores. When dining, many items that you might not expect to be charged for (e.g., water, bread) may appear on your bill.
In the EU, most goods and services are required to include value added tax (VAT) in their published prices, especially the large print. The VAT may be refundable if you are a non-resident and take the goods out of the EU unused. Just request a voucher from the store and show it to customs at your exit point. To be safe, look out for a VAT refund sticker at the door or window of the store. VAT commonly varies by country and sometimes by (class of) good within a country with "basic needs" like food and some goods taxed lower than "luxury" goods, but the systems vary from country to country and prices are often more affected by other factors than VAT. Unlike the US, there is no local sales tax, though many municipalities charge a tourism tax for accommodations, that naturally varies by place and sometimes by season or type of accommodation.
Although quite varied, the principles and main staples of continental European cuisine have laid the base for European cuisines. There's a world of difference between the historically available produce of the cold north and the Mediterranean south of Europe and, of course, the development of national cuisines depended highly on the available goods.
However, most European cuisines share a few characteristics and many are held in high regard worldwide, despite having relatively short traditions compared to, for example, those of China. Perhaps the most celebrated of European cuisines is the French one, which has had a strong influence on the modern development of fine dining in other countries. Italian cuisine is equally well-known and loved, and a range of dishes from other countries have gained popularity throughout the continent and the world. Think Spanish tapas or paella, Austrian pastries, German cakes, English Sunday Roast or Turkish kebabs, just to name a few.
Meat plays an important role in most European cuisines. Where Asian cooking has a preference for bite-size bits, many European dishes include full serving pieces. Steaks (of various meats) are popular all over the continent, as are accompanying sauces of all kinds. Potatoes became a major source of starch after the discovery of the Americas, besides bread, pasta, pastries and some forms of dumplings.
The dining scenes in European cities have been heavily influenced by food from the rest of the world. Europeans gladly mix their regional food traditions with those of other parts of Europe, Asia and the Americas, leaving both locals and visitors with a wide array of options in most of the larger cities.
For amateurs of fine dining, French cuisine contains the original versions of globally acclaimed and revered delicacies, as well as local specialities, which include escargot, frog legs and a variety of seafood. Italian cuisine holds a wealth of culinary delights, some of which made their way worldwide, such as pizza or various kinds of pasta, but they often evolved into something quite different than one can experience on location.
Spanish cuisine is gaining in popularity both across Europe and on a global scale, as well as the Portuguese cuisine. To a large extent based on seafood, which is no wonder given their long Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines and maritime traditions, they celebrate meals as much as the Italians do, and elevate small snacks, or tapas, to an art.
The Balkan countries, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey and Caucasus form a continuum where more and more "eastern" flavours are added, with fresh curd cheeses, tomatoes and roasted meat in many forms. Given the Islamic influences, you will find much less pork and more beef, lamb and chicken there. See also Middle Eastern cuisine.
Everywhere along the Mediterranean coast you will find an abundance of olive oil, which is a tasty and healthy alternative to the many other fats used all over the world. This may be the key to the secret of eating so well and so much while remaining trim and living long, which is the case in many locations across the Mediterranean.
Central Europe is home to simple, hearty cuisine including large portions of meat, especially pork, sausages, potatoes, cabbage and sour cream. This is certainly not the place to look for tips on eating less and getting thinner, but one for sure won't be leaving hungry. Moreover, while Switzerland, Austria and many places in Germany have prices matching their high standard of living, with the new EU members it is still possible to fill up very inexpensively compared to the rest of Europe.
Nordic cuisine is characterized by dishes of seafood, game, berries, and bread of different cereals. Perhaps the most known of all Scandinavian dishes are the humble Swedish meatballs (köttbullar), popularized alongside some other staples by IKEA restaurants. While simplicity is always a permeating value, do not be fooled by IKEA's tasty yet mundane offerings, as Nordic food has many more refined flavours. Of note is also the concept of smörgåsbord, a prototype for modern-day buffet, centered on fish and meats.
Russian cuisine has much in common with the cuisines of Ukraine, the Baltic States, Central Europe and the Nordics, together with unique local delicacies. As their cuisines are less known globally, you can find many hidden gems and surprises, from the variety of soups and dumplings to the light and sweet desserts.
While Benelux and the British Isles may be actually the least known for their culinary prowess, there is a lot to be enjoyed there as well. There are the obvious choices like Belgian chocolate or Dutch cheese, but also much more to explore if you care to go beyond the typical British fish & chips in a local pub (which is also a treat to enjoy).
Europeans generally have liberal attitudes towards drinking, and alcohol is considered a standard part of leisure gatherings. The legal drinking age varies between 16–18 in most countries, often with differentiated limits for beer and spirits. While inappropriate behaviour can earn you not only scorn or a boot from the premises, but also puts you at risk of getting arrested or fined, being drunk alone is not a crime, and it is tolerated, if sometimes socially frowned upon.
Except on the British Isles, nightclubs rarely get going until past midnight – head for bars and restaurants to find people until then. Especially in the southern part of Europe, alcohol makes its way to the table (and one's bloodstream) even earlier, as wine is considered a de rigeur part of a proper midday or evening meal. Drinking in public laws vary widely, with some countries have a "legal unless explicitly prohibited by the municipality" approach, whereas others have banned it everywhere, but don't necessarily enforce the ban. There are also often loopholes such as drinking "while going from some place to another" being treated differently from drinking while stationary. Regardless of the precise legal situation, police are much more likely to intervene if you kick up a fuss, behave loudly or disorderly or otherwise get on their or other people's nerves.
Of course drunk driving is heavily penalized anywhere you go and is now enforced almost universally in Europe. Fines can be heavy, you can lose your driving licence and causing any incident under the influence is considered criminal in many countries. There are sometimes controls for other substances as well – in many countries, driving under the influence of various psychoactive substances is also prosecuted. Some substances can be detected in your blood or urine days after consumption and the law does not necessarily care whether those trace amounts still affect your ability to drive. Handling a bike may also be subject to DUI limits, but those are usually much more loosely enforced and higher to begin with. Police will usually not bother to control people on bikes specifically, but if they stop you for some other reason (e.g. lack of a tail light) and smell alcohol on your breath they may check you "just in case" and give you a fine for both.
Europe is by far the dominant wine region in the world, with five out of ten of the world's largest wine-exporting countries: France, Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal. Most European nations have wine production of some scale. The earliest known wine in Europe was made around 2000 BC by the Minoan civilization in present day Greece, and was spread across Europe by the Phoenicians and later the Romans.
Unlike other regions, European wine producers place much more emphasis on tradition and terroir than on the grape variety, and wines in Europe will typically be labelled by region rather than by its grape, unlike the common practice elsewhere. This is because European wine producers claim that their long history have allowed them to adapt production techniques to the unique conditions of their particular region, and things like the soil composition for a region also has much influence on the taste of the wine. Some of the most famous wine districts are Bordeaux (whose name is as synonymous with its wines as the city), and Burgundy (Bourgogne) around the city of Dijon which produces both red and whites – the most famous ones, often referred to as Burgundies, are red wines made from Pinot Noir or white wines made from Chardonnay grapes. The Alsace region close to Germany, and Mosel across the border – grown on some of the continents most dramatic vineyards on very steep hills – are known for white wines. Tuscany in Italy is famous for its Chianti wines made from Sangiovese grapes, while La Rioja is a well-known Spanish wine region.
In fact, many wine names indicate the place where the wine comes from, with EU laws forbidding use of the name unless it is from a specific place. Examples include Champagne, which has to come from the Champagne region of France, Port which has to come from Porto, Portugal, Sherry which has to come from Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, as well as Tokaji which has to come from Tokaj, Hungary.
People in the "Beer Belt" of the British Isles, Benelux and Central Europe drink high-quality beer in large quantities. Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and the Czech Republic make some of the finest brews in Europe and maybe the world. Visitors from many countries, especially those from East Asia or North America will find that European beers have a richer stronger taste, and often a higher alcohol content than found at home.
- In Europe as elsewhere, the most popular beers are lagers, also known as Pilsner after the Czech city of Pilsen that originated the style. A Czech Pilsner will taste notably different from those of most non-Czech breweries, being a bit "softer" and sometimes more "buttery" in taste.
- The United Kingdom, Ireland and partly the Belgian abbey breweries, on the other hand have strong brewing traditions in ale, which is brewed using quickly fermenting yeast giving it a sweet, hoppy and fruity taste. These come in bitter, pale, mild and brown varieties.
- Wheat beers are very popular in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, and come in many varieties of their own. Traditional German Hefeweizen is unfiltered and cloudy, while kristall is filtered and looks much like lager. Belgian witbiers like Hoegaarden are often gently flavored and popular in summer, sometimes with a slice of lemon on the side. And in a class of their own are spontaneously fermented lambics, which are very sour and not to everyone's taste!
- Stout (porter) is a British and Irish speciality, with Guinness available around the continent. Made from roasted malts, stout is dark and strong in both taste and alcohol content, hence the name.
Most European nations have a national brand; like Guinness, Carlsberg, Heineken or Stella, sold most everywhere – but the really good beers are often the smaller local brands, which don't try to appeal to everyone. In recent years microbreweries have had a huge revival shooting up everywhere around the continent. If you really want to indulge, try one of the Volksfeste, held in many German cities, most famously the Munich Oktoberfest, where despite the name they start drinking in late September! The area with the highest density of breweries in the world is Franconia, north of Bavaria if you were curious.
Another northern European favourite is cider, most commonly brewed from apples and sold both bottled and on tap in pubs. Taste and alcohol content can vary widely, from dense, cloudy and strong (8% or more) to light, weak (under 4%) and occasionally even artificially flavoured. The UK is the largest consumer and producer of ciders in the world, and the drink is also popular in France (Brittany and Normandy), Ireland, Spain (Asturias and Galicia) and Sweden. Frankfurt and the area surrounding it is also famous for Äbblwöi as the locals call their cider. In recent years, Scandinavian varieties of flavoured cider (apple paired with other fruits, such as berries and citrus fruits) have become popular in parts of the continent, especially with younger drinkers.
As elsewhere vodka, rum and gin are available everywhere. The Nordic countries, Eastern Europe and Russia especially have an affection for vodka, and if you've so far only tried the usual suspects like Smirnoff or Absolut; you should try the vodka there; you may just end up surprised at how tasty the stuff can actually be. Elsewhere, most regions have a local speciality that local drinking comrades will happily fill in you, and eagerly wait for your funny faces when your throat and taste-buds screams in agony. Most likely it will be slivovitz (also called rakia) in south-eastern Europe and the Balkans (especially in Serbia), a strongly tasting and fruity brandy, usually made from plums. Similarly named is the anise-flavoured drink raki, also popular in Greece, Turkey and the Balkans. Other forms of spirit, made from grapes instead, such as traditional brandy (including Cognac) and port are popular in the UK and south-western Europe. Greece and Italy makes the popular ouzo/sambuca which along with the related, resurgent absinthe, is made from star anise and sugar, giving it a liquorice like taste - watch for the many party fire tricks related to those drinks. In northern Europe you'll likely be served schnapps, usually made from grains or potatoes accented by traditional herbs like dill or sloe; be careful, it suddenly kicks in without much warning. In northern Germany, korn is the liquor of choice, a clear beverage made from grains and usually not filtered. Finally, it will hardly come as a surprise to many that whisky (or whiskey) is popular with the Scots and Irish. While all these drinks have strong regional roots, you'll generally find one or two types of each, in virtually any bar on the continent.
Many European countries are known for their distinctive coffee (Italy, France, Austria, Sweden) and tea cultures (Britain, Ireland, Russia, Turkey). Spain and Italy also have a particularly strong appreciation for hot chocolate. In Europe, hot chocolate is almost always dark, rather than milk chocolate, which is generally considered to be for children only.
While Europe has nowhere near the variety of sugared soft drinks of the US, there are some non-alcoholic beverages that originated in Europe and are still best there. Juices are also plentiful and often excellent, with apple juice available in all price and quality categories, especially in Central Europe, as the area around Lake Constance and the altes Land near Hamburg are among the biggest apple growing regions in the world. In the Nordic countries you can try berry juices made with wild-growing forest berries. Muslim communities in places such as Turkey usually have a broad range of fruit juices, in lieu of alcohol.
Lodging cultures in Europe differ significantly by country, but most people across the continent sleep in hotels. Most medium-sized towns at least have one hotel, and usually have a couple of them in different price ranges. Rooms are generally expensive: they usually go for about €90-300 per night, and prices even exceed that if you're staying in one of the top-end hotels that most major cities have. These hotels usually feature quite some amenities, including a TV, telephone, breakfast, etc. Some countries, such as France, also have roadside hotels that are somewhat similar to motels in the United States.
Because of the relatively high cost of lodging, hostels are popular among younger backpackers. All major cities have them, but they are difficult to find outside the typical tourist places. At around €15–30 per night, hostels are significantly cheaper than hotels. Quality varies widely across the continent. Hostels in eastern Europe are much cheaper and sometimes of a much lower quality than those in the western part.
Camping is also popular with Europeans themselves. This ranges from Leave-no-trace camping in Scandinavia under the (more or less formally granted) everybody's right (Allemansrätten, Jokamiehenoikeus) to camp in the free nature for a night as long as nothing is damaged and no fences are crossed, to fancy "long term" camping grounds in e.g. Germany, where some people spend the better part of their weekends and holidays in semi-permanent caravans. Usually camping grounds are a cheap and comfortable way to stay – some even offer pre-built tents or caravans, which are already equipped with most of your basic needs – but sometimes they may be awkward to reach if you cannot or don't want to go there by car. Many campsites have shuttle services, but they may not run at all times of the day or all that often.
There are also several lodgings of quirky means in which to stay. In Sweden you can sleep in a hotel made completely out of ice; Greece and Turkey have hotels in sandstone or rock caves; and Sveti Stefan in Montenegro is an island village that has been entirely converted into accommodation.
Güvende kalmak için[değiştir]
While there is an ongoing civil war in eastern Ukraine, and terrorist attacks in European countries have got the world's attention, Europe is generally one of the least violent continents.
In most European cities, the main risks for visitors are pickpockets and muggings. Using common sense and being aware of your surroundings can help to greatly reduce the risk of these occurrences. Alcohol is an integral part of many European cultures but overuse can lead to violence and poor judgement. In general, bars and pubs are not a place where alcohol causes these problems in Europe but it can end up being a big problem on the roads.
Other crime issues are drug use and gang related violence which are most prone in Britain and France, but it's virtually unheard of for any tourists to be involved in such issues. The few "trouble areas" to avoid are the run-down suburbs of certain urban areas (particularly in Europe's largest cities); some places in eastern and southern Europe do have much higher violent crime rates and can be very dangerous for non locals, but these areas should not be of interest to the average tourist. Central and Western Europe are generally the safest regions. Pickpocketing is unfortunately rampant in many of Europe's most touristy cities, so it pays to take extra precautions and guard your valuables as much as possible.
Some countries, such as Russia and Belarus, have issues with corruption and authority misconduct.
The attitude towards LGBT people varies greatly. While most countries in the west allow same-sex marriage and have a tolerant attitude to sexual minorities (at least in large and cosmopolitan cities), Eastern Europe and especially Russia can be a dangerous destination for LGBT travellers.
While ethnic rivalry between neighbor nations is usually at a friendly level, and many European countries are multicultural since generations back, racism remains a problem in parts of Europe.
Europe may be very urban and densely populated in general, but as always be prepared when traveling in rural and forested or mountainous areas. All it takes is one wrong turn down a ski piste and you are stranded.
For more information see Common scams which contains many Europe-specific scams.
Avrupada çoğu restoran üst düzey hijyen standartlarına sahip olduğu için ve ülkelerin çoğunda musluk suyu içilebildiği için ziyaretlerde özel bir önlem gerekmez. Ancak, bu konularda daha detaylı bilgilere ulaşmak, acil yardım, ecza yönetmelikleri ve dişçilik standartları hakkında bilgi edinmek için lütfen ilgili ülkenin 'Güvenli kalın' bölümüne bakın.
AB/AEA vatandaşları Avrupa Sağlık Sigortası Kartı (EHIC) başvurusu yapmalılar, bu kart devletinizin sağladığı sağlık hizmetlerini Avrupa Birliği'ne ek olarak, Norveç, İsviçre ve Lihtenştaynda, ziyaret ettiğiniz ülkede ikamet edenlerle aynı koşullarda indirimli veya ücretsiz olarak almanızı sağlayacaktır. Eğer ülkenizde ücretsiz sağlık hizmetine alıştıysanız, unutmayın ki bazı ülkeler tedavi için ödeme almaktadır, bu ücret sizden de talep edilebilir. Ayrıca unutmayın ki EHIC seyahat sigortası anlamına gelmez; özel sağlığı, dağdan kurtarma operasyonu veya ülkenize nakili kapsamaz. Yurt dışına tedavi amaçlı seyahatinize müsade etmez.
AB/AEA vatandaşı değilseniz, seyahat sigortası yaptırmayı unutmayın, bazı ülkeler ücretsiz acil yardım sağlayabilir fakat devamındaki tedavi ve nakil süreci sijzen sorumluluğunuzdadır, ayrıca bazı ülkeler tüm masrafları sizin karşılamanızı isteyebilir - AB vatandaşı olmayanlar için evrensel sağlık hizmeti efsanesi ücretsiz tedavi anlamına gelmez.
For emergencies you can dial 112 in any EU member nation as well as most other European countries – even when it is not the primary local number for emergency services. All 112 emergency centres within the EU are legally required to be capable of connecting you to an English speaking operator. 112 can be dialled from any GSM phone, usually even locked phones or ones without a SIM installed. Calls from a phone without a SIM card is handled differently in a few countries, for example authorities in Germany ignore them altogether.